In this blog we delve behind the glossy marketing claims and discuss some of the issues with composite decking products which are not well documented.
Deck boards will be safe in dry conditions, but have the potential to be slippery in wet conditions which could lead to personal injury and potential insurance claims. The most common hazard on deck boards is standing water after rainfall. Deck construction design and regular maintenance can aid surface run off but will not remove the hazard altogether so the potential risk will always be there if using boards without non-slip inserts. For a surface to be deemed to have a low slip potential, a pendulum test value (PTV) of 36 or above needs to be achieved on the Stanley pendulum test (BS7976).
Many composite deck boards will achieve an initial PTV above 36 in wet conditions. However these ratings are achieved on brand new boards straight from the production line in controlled testing facilities. The slip resistance of boards will reduce over time as the deck is used by people and is open to the elements in external settings. Very few composite deck boards will achieve an initial PTV above 45, with their boards only just achieving a rating above the minimum standard. Therefore after a number of years in situ where they are exposed to the different seasons and footfall, boards are at risk of falling below the safe level of 36.
This is a big problem as it would be reasonable to expect your deck to last for twenty years. By choosing a board which has only been tested for an initial slip resistance, you are gambling on how long that deck will stay safe. Will it be 2, 3, 5 years? In reality you will have a surface which has the potential to be a slip risk for over 75% of it's service life.
The above photo is of a composite deck at a major visitor attraction in the UK. Slip risk needs to be considered at design stage, especially in areas of high footfall and on decks that will be used all year round in all weather conditions. The HSE estimates that slips and trips occur for 1/3rd of all accidents so you should ensure the boards are fit for purpose for the whole life span of the product.
As safety is a critical factor we would recommend a product with non-slip inserts. Our deck boards with non-slip inserts will achieve a minimum initial PTV of 85 and are guaranteed not to fall under a PTV of 55 for ten years giving real peace of mind. We re-tested our boards which had been in situ at the Eden Project for over ten years which is one of the busiest visitor attractions in the UK. The boards we sent to testing had been exposed to extremely high footfall with over one million people walking over them every year. Even after this level of use they still achieved a PTV above the initial PTV of every composite deck board on the market.
One consideration which is often overlooked as it is very rarely mentioned in product literature is that composite decking does generate static electricity and can give users of the deck a shock ranging from a mild to a very painful shock. The issue of static build up is increasing in the UK as our summers are becoming dryer, hotter and longer reflected by the record temperature in the UK of 38.1C recorded in June 2019 at the Botanical Gardens in Cambridge.
Static electricity occurs when there is an imbalance of electric charges. Composite decking is an insulating material because of the high levels of polymers within them. As a result of this, composite decking will gain a positive charge as energy is transferred to it (from the sun heating dust particles which are sitting on the deck). Once a person walks over the deck or pulls up a chair on the deck causing friction, this energy is then transferred causing a shock.
Composite decks can be treated with an anti-static solution to remove this issue. The problem is that they need to be re-applied after every rainfall as this removes the solution. Therefore the maintenance team could be re-applying the treatment indefinitely which is not cost effective or practical.
Recommended joist spans
As there are a number of different manufacturers there is a wide variety of composite products. They can be hollow or solid boards and vary in thickness between 20 and 35mm. They all have different recommended joist spans - the distance between each joist supporting the deck boards underneath to ensure the deck isn't springy under foot.
The sub structure is an important part of a decked structure as this is the part that gives the deck it's strength and is often made from structurally graded timber to ensure that it can support the expected load of the deck. A hidden cost of composite deck boards is often the sub structure. Due to the high plastic content, the recommended joist centres tend to be much narrower as they are not as strong as timber options. Recommended joist centres of 300mm is not uncommon for composite boards.
When compared to our bamboo product which has a recommended joist centre of 462mm, you will need to use over 1/3rd more joists. This will have an impact on both material costs and installation times. We would recommend considering all elements of a deck including deck boards, joists and fixings to get a truer reflection of how much the whole system will cost rather than the deck board itself.
It is reasonable to expect a 25 year guarantee to deliver just that. Especially if it has been heavily featured in a product's marketing material. However certain conditions or disclaimers are often inserted, so do check the small print on what is actually covered.
Many composite manufacturers state a long guarantee period of around 20-25 years but then reading closer, this is only applicable for certain applications. Residential and commercial warranties are common place for composite products. But what actually counts as a residential or commercial project is often left out. Is a residential warranty for a person's home? Can the same residential warranty be applied to a residential development even though there maybe 100+ apartments on the scheme? Does that count as a commercial project given the value of the development? Under closer inspection, it gets very grey, very quickly.
Furthermore, many guarantees we have seen use a sliding scale so as the years go by the value of the refund or replacement you are entitled to is significantly reduced. These work by offering a full refund in the event of product failure in the first few years. After the initial time period where a full refund can be claimed, the value eligible to be claimed is reduced. After as little as ten years, the entitled refund is less than half the original purchase price. Getting into the final years of the guarantee, the entitled refund is so small, it is practically worthless. Be sure to read the small print before purchase for peace of mind.
Plastic content - Full service life of a product
Composite products are manufactured from plastic polymers and varying levels of wood fibres, resins, UV protectors and fire retardants (not in all products).
Most composite products use recycled plastic polymers within their products. Polyurethane or HDPE (High-density Polyethylene) are plastic polymers which are used globally in a variety of products such as plastic bottles and unfortunately we often see them littering our lands and oceans. By re-using them in decking products the plastic content avoids landfill. Sounds great. Right? But what happens after the useful service life of the deck board?
A composite deck board should provide a useful service life of between ten and twenty five years. The issue with composite decking is that although the deck boards may have deteriorated during it's service life and needs replacing, the polymers within the boards are still very durable and the boards are likely to last for hundreds of years after it's useful service life if not properly recycled.
A small number of composite manufacturers in the UK can recycle old composite boards in their manufacturing process, however the number of boards that actually go through this process is unfortunately negligible. Roughly speaking, a composite board will be 50% polymer and 50% wood content. As the two materials have been mixed together in the production process and with no way of easily separating the materials they cannot be recycled at a waste management centre. The options left are leaving them in landfill for hundreds of years taking up space or to burn them which will release a huge amount of nasty gases into the atmosphere.
The marketing material of composite product manufacturers will only focus on the front end of the whole life cycle. What needs to be focused on and what will become even more focused on in the years to come is the whole life cycle of a product. Plastic polymers are petroleum based products which require a huge amount of energy in the production process. With composites, you are using a product which is fossil fuel based, high energy input in the manufacturing process and either a long stay in landfill (the useful service life of the product could quite easily be less than 10% of it's whole life cycle) or being mass burnt releasing all sorts into the atmosphere.
Let's compare the composite products to that of a timber product. Timber will grow in sustainable forests and take carbon out of the atmosphere as well as releasing oxygen as the trees grow in the sustainable forests. The forests also support whole ecosystems with a wealth of wildlife living within them. The energy required to manufacture the products is far less and every part of the tree can be used for some form of product. The expected service life of timber products varies from 15 years for treated softwood to 60 years for accoya or some hardwood species. At the end of their service life they can be used for biomass heating or re-used in other timber products such as chipboard or animal bedding.
When considering a composite decking product, do consider all the phases of a product's service life. Composite products are not as sustainable as they make out to be. They only re-use polymers which otherwise would end up at a waste management centre which could then potentially be recycled over and over again if managed correctly. Once mixed with other materials, they cannot be recycled anymore. Timber options are completely sustainable and come with third party accreditation schemes to give the end user and specifier peace of mind. It is much better to avoid polymers in the first place and choose a product which is sustainable and matches or out performs man made substitutes.
For decking products which will be used on high rise buildings such as balconies and terraces there is growing focus on fire performance. Following the Hackett Review in the wake of the Grenfell Tower tragedy the building regulations were changed meaning that products used on the façade of buildings over 18 metres (cladding and balcony components such as decking) need to achieve a minimum fire rating of Euroclass A2-S1, D0. This classification means that fires are unable to spread across the outside of a building making it much safer for residents.
In the wake of recent fires on buildings under 18 metres in height using Euroclass D fire rated materials, the CTI (Confederation of Timber Industries) have advised that all products used for cladding and balconies (deck boards) should achieve a Euroclass B fire rating.
The majority of composite products only achieve a Euroclass D rating so in the event of a fire, the products will not give much protection to residents. There are some composite products on the market which achieve a Euroclass B rating but these are very costly as a high amount of fire retardants needs to be added to the boards. Timber products such as Redwood, thermowood and accoya can achieve this rating by sending the timber to a specialist fire treatment facility which can upgrade a Euroclass D rated product to a Euroclass B rating. Our Bamboo range achieves a Euroclass B rating without the need to send the boards for external fire treatment. Euroclass B products will offer a much more robust performance in the event of a fire when compared to standard products and will give peace of mind to residents and developers alike. At the deso
Considering a composite which would recommend asking the following questions....